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How is non-woven fabric made?

Let's first understand how the fiber comes from. Natural fibers exist in nature. Chemical fibers (including man-made fibers and synthetic fibers) are made by dissolving polymer compounds in a solvent into a spinning solution or high-temperature heating and melting into a melt, and then spin the solution or melt from the spinning solution. Extruded from the spinneret of the silk pump, the jetted stream cools and solidifies to form the nascent fiber, and the nascent fiber undergoes corresponding post-processing to form short fibers or filaments that can be used for spinning.

Woven fabrics are made by spinning fibers into yarns and then weaving or knitting the yarns into fabrics. Non-woven fabrics do not need spinning and weaving, so how does it turn fibers into cloth? There are many production processes for non-woven fabrics, and the processes are also different, but the core processes all include fiber web formation and fiber web reinforcement.

"Fiber-laid", as the name implies, is to make fibers into a web. Common methods include dry-laid, wet-laid, spun-laid, melt-blown, and so on.

Dry-laid and wet-laid are more suitable for short fiber-laid webs. Generally, the fiber raw materials need to be pretreated, such as tearing large fiber clusters and fiber blocks into small pieces to loosen them and remove impurities from them. , Mix the various fiber components evenly, and make preparations before forming a net. The dry method generally involves combing and laying pre-processed fibers into a fiber web with a certain thickness. Wet-laid is to disperse short fibers in water containing chemical additives to form a suspension slurry, and then filter the water, and the fibers deposited on the filter will form a fiber web.

Both spinning and meltblown webs are spinning methods using chemical fibers, and the fibers are directly laid into a web during the spinning process. Among them, the spinning solution or melt is sprayed from the spinneret, and then cooled and stretched to form filaments with a certain fineness, and then form a fiber web on the receiving device. The melt-blown web uses high-speed hot air to extremely stretch the small stream ejected from the spinneret to form ultra-fine fibers, which are then gathered on the receiving device to form a fiber web. The diameter of the fiber formed by the melt-blown method is smaller, which is beneficial to improve the filtration efficiency.

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